Alpha-L-PolyLactate™ found in Cytomax® Performance Drink has two primary functions in our body: supply energy faster than glucose and act as an acid buffer. Alpha-L-PolyLactate™ lessens the effects of acids by helping to remove them from the body.
By definition, a buffer is something that lessens the effect of something else. During activities that generate large amounts of acid, a buffer lessens the effects of the acid ion, also called protons or hydrogen ions (H+ ions).
The effectiveness of a buffer is tested by determining what happens to the pH (acidity index) when acids or bases (alkalis) are added to a solution containing a buffer, such as Alpha-L-PolyLactate™. According to this system of measurement, neutral pH is scored 7.0. Acidity means pH is less than 7.0 and alkalinity means pH greater than 7.0. In order to make an Alpha-L-Polylactate™ solution acidic, a significant amount of acid must be added. Due to its chemical structure, Alpha-L-PolyLactate™ resists strong acids from changing the pH.
Alpha-L-PolyLactate™ also acts as a strong acid buffer in the body. Cell membranes have lactate transport proteins that function to move lactate across membranes. These transport proteins move both lactate (an anion) and an acid proton together. The lactate transport proteins move and help dispose of lactic acid produced during intense exercise. Consequently, lactate is used as a fuel source and the acid proton is disposed of by conversion to water (H2O).
In summary, Alpha-L-Polylactate™ by itself is a strong buffer in the body. Alpha-L-PolyLactate™ is an optimal fuel source as it works faster than glucose, but the metabolism of the lactate anion in Polylactate buffers by causing the removal of acid protons.
Dr. George A. Brooks, Ph.D.
Professor of Integrative Biology
Q. What is Muscle Milk®?
A. Muscle Milk is a protein-enhanced formula designed to promote increased strength, lean muscle growth and fast recovery from exercise. Muscle Milk contains high quality, complete proteins well absorbed and utilized by the body in maintaining a healthy immune system as well as muscle rebuilding and recovery from exercise. Muscle Milk also contains functional fats called medium-chain triglycerides (MCTs), which are more likely metabolized for muscle fuel than stored as body fat. Muscle Milk is also trans-fat free and contains 25% of the Daily Value for 20 different vitamins and minerals in each serving. Use Muscle Milk as a meal replacement or snack as part of a meal plan that includes vegetables, fruits, whole grains and other wholesome foods.
Q. Does Muscle Milk® contain creatine?
A. Creatine, a compound naturally made in the body and critical during energy metabolism in muscles, is not added to any of the Muscle Milk products. Research supports that creatine supplements may enhance muscle mass and strength gains resulting from resistance exercise (e.g., with weight training.) However, the safety of taking supplemental creatine both short and long term is not clear. Therefore, Muscle Milk products do not contain added creatine.
Q. Does Muscle Milk® contain monosodium glutamate (MSG)?
A. MSG, or monosodium glutamate, is used as a flavor enhancer in many processed foods. Muscle Milk does not contain MSG. Some individuals may react with asthma-like symptoms to MSG in foods so for clarification and a detailed explanation of MSG versus glutamate as part of food protein, please read the following statement:
Q. Is Muscle Milk® gluten free?
A. Gluten is a protein that comes from wheat and products made with wheat ingredients such as flour. Some individuals are sensitive to gluten protein, referred to as gluten intolerance, and may respond with digestive symptoms, including diarrhea. Seek the advice of a physician or registered dietitian to determine if you have gluten intolerance and to obtain appropriate dietary advice. Muscle Milk is gluten free, except in the following flavors: Cookies 'n Creme, Chocolate Malt, Chocolate Banana Crunch and Chocolate Mint Chip
Q. Is Muscle Milk® lactose free?
A. Lactose is the sugar (carbohydrate) found naturally in milk. Some individuals have an intolerance to lactose and do not fully digest this milk sugar and may experience intestinal symptoms of bloating, gas and diarrhea as a result. Muscle Milk is lactose free and can be consumed by people with lactose intolerance.
Q. Does Muscle Milk® contain milk?
A. Muscle Milk does not contain milk. Muscle Milk contains dairy-based proteins (calcium & sodium caseinate, milk protein isolate, whey) that are derived from cow's milk. These protein are specially prepared to be free of lactose, the sugar found in milk.
Q. Does Muscle Milk® Contain animal ingredients?
A. Muscle Milk does use dairy-based proteins from cow's milk. Muscle Milk does not contain any other animal ingredients.
Q. What type of proteins are in Muscle Milk®?
A. Muscle Milk contains a blend of dairy-based proteins: calcium & sodium caseinate, milk protein isolate and whey. These proteins have been highly filtered to remove lactose and are naturally very low in fat & cholesterol. These proteins are considered to be "complete" proteins, meaning they provide all essential amino acids. Additionally, the proteins in Muscle Milk are high quality and well absorbed and utilized by the body.
Q. Does Muscle Milk® contain colostrum?
A. Colostrum is the “first milk” produced by cows, humans and other mammals within a day of giving birth. Colostrum contains protein, vitamins and other nutrients along with antibodies and special growth factors critical for newborns. All Muscle Milk products are free of colostrum from any source.
Q. Does Muscle Milk® contain sucralose?
A. Muscle Milk uses sucralose to achieve a naturally sweet taste without the extra calories of added sugar. With over 100 scientific studies and the approval of the Food and Drug Administration, sucralose is proven safe for use as a zero calorie sweetener in foods and beverages. Sucralose is not linked to any health problems or risks such as cancer and is considered safe for children’s health.
Q. Does Muscle Milk® offer a natural version?
A. For individuals looking for a version of Muscle Milk with natural sweeteners, there is Muscle Milk Naturals – free of artificial sweeteners but with the same great tasting formulation. Muscle Milk Naturals contains Stevia and Lo Han as natural sweetening agents. Muscle Milk Naturals is also lactose and gluten free.
Most cellular energy is generated in an area of the cell called mitochondria, also referred to as ‘Powerhouses of the Cell’ because that’s where oxygen is utilized. In cells, mitochondria form a vast energy producing and distribution network, which fuels the products of food digestion and enzymatic breakdown are burned. For cellular energy production to be maximal, both oxygen and fuels need to be delivered to cells. How can cells make energy faster from lactate in Cytomax's Alpha-L-Polylactate™ than from blood sugar (glucose)?
The first reason is that lactate use is more direct. In order to provide cellular energy, glucose from the blood must move past the cell membrane barrier. This process is not fast because glucose transport proteins on the muscle cell surface act relatively slowly. Once inside, glucose must be broken down into pyruvate (P) and lactate (L). In resting muscle the L/P ratio is about 10, meaning the muscles contain 10 times more Lactate than pyruvate. During sustained exercise when oxygen uptake is high, the L/P ratio rises to 100 or greater, indicating that Lactate, not pyruvate is the major fuel for oxidative metabolism. Compared to the limitation in glucose entry, the formation of lactate and pyruvate.
The second reason why lactate is used faster than glucose in the mitochondrial energy transduction network is that cell membranes contain transport proteins designed by nature to move lactate into and out of cells. These fast-working transporters (sometimes called monocarboxylate transporters or MCT’s) are abundant on the cell surface. The MCT’s or Lactate/Pyruvate (L/P) transporters also allow energy fuels into mitochondria.
In sum, the lactate in Alpha-L-Polylactate™ found in Cytomax® is a faster fuel in mitochondria than glucose for three reasons: 1) transport proteins (MCT’s) are faster and more abundant 2) the steps in converting glucose to pyruvate and lactate are skipped 3) lactate transporter proteins move fuels across both cell and mitochondrial membrane barriers.
Dr. George A. Brooks, Ph.D.
Professor of Integrative Biology
Exclusive to Cytomax® products, Alpha-L-PolyLactate™ is a patented energy source proven to provide energy longer and faster. Cytomax® lowers acid in muscles, which prevents burning and cramping during training and helps reduce soreness and speed recovery.
In a University Study, the Alpha-L-Polylactate™ found in Cytomax® was shown to: Provide Energy 3 times faster and 3 times more efficiently than glucos. This breakthrough allowed athletes competing in a long hard ride (90 minutes at 65% VO2max) to sprint 22% longer on Cytomax® than when consuming another popular sport drink.
To view the complete study conducted at California State University Chico, click HERE
CytoSport™, Inc has received Kosher Dairy certification (OU-D) for Muscle Milk® and Muscle Milk® Ready-to-Drink products under the supervision of the Kashruth Division of the Orthodox Union. CytoSport™ will be placing the Kosher Dairy symbol (OU-D) on all certified Muscle Milk® and Muscle Milk® Light product packaging.
In order for a food item to be Kosher Certified, it must meet the following criteria:
1. Must come from a Kosher animal
2. All ingredients must be Kosher and free of meat derivatives
3. Must be processed on Kosher equipment
Kosher-Dairy certification for Muscle Milk® and Muscle Milk® Light Ready-to-Drink products is effective from November 1 2009 through October 31, 2011.
To view the Letter of Certification from the Union of Orthodox Jewish Congregations of American, click HERE
- Muscle Milk® - Banana Creme 14 oz
- Muscle Milk® - Banana Creme 330 mL
- Muscle Milk® - Banana Creme 500 mL
- Muscle Milk® - Cafe Late 500 mL
- Muscle Milk® - Cake Batter 500 mL
- Muscle Milk® - Chocolate 14 oz
- Muscle Milk® - Chocolate 330 mL
- Muscle Milk® - Chocolate 500 mL
- Muscle Milk® - Cookies 'n Creme 330 mL
- Muscle Milk® - Cookies 'n Creme 500 mL
- Muscle Milk® Light 100 Calorie - Chocolate
- Muscle Milk® Light 100 Calorie - Vanilla Creme
- Muscle Milk® Light 100 Calorie - Strawberries 'n Creme
- Muscle Milk® Light - Cafe Latte 500 mL
- Muscle Milk® Light - Chocolate 14 oz
- Muscle Milk® Light - Chocolate 500 mL
- Muscle Milk® Light - Vanilla Creme 14 oz
- Muscle Milk® Light - Vanilla Creme 500 mL
- Muscle Milk® - Mocha Latte 330 mL
- Muscle Milk® - Mocha Latte 500 mL
- Muscle Milk® - Strawberries 'n Creme 330 mL
- Muscle Milk® - Strawberries 'n Creme 500 mL
- Muscle Milk® - Vanilla Creme 14 oz
- Muscle Milk® - Vanilla Creme 330 mL
- Muscle Milk® - Vanilla Creme 500 mL
Recently there has been a great deal of confusion with regards to Mono-Sodium Glutamate (MSG) and milk-based proteins. MSG is used as a flavor enhancer in many processed foods. Muscle Milk does not contain MSG. Below is an accurate, straight-forward explanation to clarify this question for consumers.
About 10% of the protein in a glass of milk is glutamic acid; however there is no MSG in milk-based proteins. Muscle Milk® and MONSTER MILK™ product formulas contain only milk-based proteins.
MSG is the sodium salt of free-form glutamic acid. Glutamic acid that is bound to a protein is not the free-form amino acid, therefore cannot exist as MSG. In milk-based proteins all glutamic acid is bound to other naturally occurring amino acids that form the proteins of milk. Additionally, about 10% of the protein in Muscle Milk® and MONSTER MILK™ is glutamic acid, however there is no MSG in Muscle Milk® or MONSTER MILK™. All glutamic acid in Muscle Milk® is bound (non free-form) to the naturally occurring amino acids that form the milk-based proteins. Individuals sensitive to MSG do not react to proteins that contain bound glutamic acid (i.e. milk-based proteins). Furthermore, free-form, unbound glutamic acid is not added to any Muscle Milk® or MONSTER MILK™ products therefore MSG is not present.
Q. How does MONSTER PUMP™ differ from Fast Twitch™?
A. MONSTER PUMP contains over 17 grams of cellular volumizing agents, including Waxy Maize Starch, D-Glucose, and Carbogen® to provide a sustained insulin response to maximize muscle tissue nutrient uptake. MONSTER PUMP includes added BCAA's to protect lean muscle tissue during workouts and promote muscle recovery and growth after workouts. Additionally, U.S. patented Alpha-L-PolyLactate™ is a proven, functional energy source that helps prevent the buildup of acid in exercising muscle tissue.
Q. What is Alpha-L-PolyLactate™?
A. Alpha-L-PolyLactate™ is lactate with acid removed. This patented, breakthrough ingredient has been shown to provide energy to working muscle 3 times faster than glucose energy and helps prevent muscle tissue acid buildup during intense workouts.
Q. Does MONSTER PUMP contain creatine?
A. Yes, MONSTER PUMP contains Kre-Alkalyn® pH stable creatine monohydrate
Q. When is the best time to use MONSTER PUMP?
A. MONSTER PUMP is best used 15 minutes pre-workout for sustained energy, full body pumps, razor sharp mental focus, and enhanced delivery of nutrients to muscle tissue.
Q. How does MONSTER MASS™ differ from CytoGainer™?
A. MONSTER MASS contains more calories per serving and provides an advanced, 50 grams multi-source, sustained-release protein matrix. MONSTER MASS also includes Waxy Maize Starch in conjunction with Maltodextrin to rapidly provide glucose energy to fuel muscle growth and recovery. Waxy Maize Starch also provides a insulin response for quick uptake of free-form BCAA's, glutamine peptides, and L-Glutamine.
Q. Does MONSTER MASS contain 100% whey protein sources?
A. No. Unlike CytoGainer, MONSTER MASS contains a multi-source matrix of proteins, including: whey concentrate, whey isolate, isolated milk protein, caseinate, and lactoferrin. Additionally, MONSTER MASS provides free-form BCAA's L-Valine, L-Leucine, and L-Isoleucine.
Q. With 630 calories and 50 grams of protein, how easy is MONSTER MASS to digest?
A. MONSTER MASS contains Aminogen®, bromelain, papain, and lactase to assist with ease of digestion and ensure that proteins are broken down into absorbable peptides. Additionally, MONSTER MASS is 98% lactose free.
Q. What is Lean Lipids™ Plus?
A. Lean Lipids Plus is a blend of calorically dense sunflower and/or safflower oil, MCT's, canola oil, and CLA which are excellent sources of energy for muscle growth rather than stored as fat.
Q. When are the best times to use MONSTER MASS?
A. MONSTER MASS may be used in the following ways: 1.5 -2 hours pre-workout for enhanced protein synthesis during intense workouts OR 30 minutes - 1.5 hours post-workout to trigger an ideal anabolic environment for recovery and growth
Q. Who should use MONSTER MASS?
A. MONSTER MASS is ideal for those seeking additional caloric support to quickly gain lean muscle mass.
Q. How is MONSTER MILK™ powder different from Muscle Milk® powder?
A. MONSTER MILK contains 50 grams of a lactose-free, sustained-release protein blend per serving compared to 32 grams per serving in original Muscle Milk. Additionally, MONSTER MILK creates a positive nitrogen balance for muscle growth by providing a powerful amino acid matrix of 22.5 grams of EAA's, 11.8 grams of free-form BCAA's, and 13 grams of L-Glutamine.
Q. Does MONSTER MILK contain creatine?
A. Yes. MONSTER MILK contains 1 gram of Kre-Alkalyn® pH stable creatine monohydrate
Q. What is the function of Aminogen® in MONSTER MILK?
A. MONSTER MILK contains 500 mg of Aminogen®, which is a patented digestive enzyme that helps ensure the breakdown of the sustained-release proteins into easily absorbable peptides.
Q. Is MONSTER MILK Lactose Free?
A. Yes. MONSTER MILK is Lactose free
Q. What is Lean Lipids™ Plus?
A. Lean Lipids Plus is a blend of calorically dense sunflower and/or safflower oil, Medium Chain triglycerides (MCT's), canola oil, and CLA which are excellent sources of energy for muscle growth rather than stored as fat.
Q. When are the best times to use MONSTER MILK?
A. 1.5 - 2 hours pre-workout for sustained energy to carry you through intense workouts OR 30 minutes - 1.5 hours post-workout to create a positive nitrogen balance and provide muscle tissue with the proteins and free-form amino acids needed for growth & repair OR prior to bed to create an anabolic environment while sleeping
Q. Who should use MONSTER MILK?
A. MONSTER MILK can be used by anyone looking for a comprehensive high protein shake or weight gainer, which is more complete than just whey protein alone. MONSTER MILK is ideal for those seeking to gain muscle mass, add weight, or maintain/preserve their current physique.
Muscle Milk® Ready-to-Drink 14 oz FAQ’s
1.) Does Muscle Milk® Ready-to-Drink needs to be refrigerated?
Muscle Milk is aseptically packaged so it is shelf stable. It should be refrigerated after opening.
2.) Are Muscle Milk bottles recyclable?
Yes, Muscle Milk bottles are Code 7 hybrid resin bottles that are recyclable by most recyclers.
3.) Does Muscle Milk contain creatine?
A. Creatine, a compound naturally made in the body and critical during energy metabolism in muscles, is not added to any of the Muscle Milk products.
4.) When is the best time to take Muscle Milk?
Muscle Milk offers a great and convenient solution anytime you want a high quality snack or ‘grab and go’ nutrition. Use Muscle Milk any time of the day:
With Meals: Drink along with your meal to increase the overall protein quality and content.
In Between Meals: Keep amino acid a nitrogen levels elevated to promote protein synthesis and maintain muscle tissue.
Immediately After Exercise: Muscle Milk is an excellent after workout shake as it provides a protein matrix for extended amino acid delivery.
Before Bed: The slow-digesting proteins in Muscle Milk provide time-released amino acid delivery to your body while you sleep.
5.) Is Muscle Milk Gluten Free?
A. All Muscle Milk Ready-to-Drink shakes are gluten-free. Gluten is a protein that comes from wheat and products made with wheat ingredients such as flour. Some individuals are sensitive to gluten protein, referred to as gluten intolerance, and may respond with digestive symptoms, including diarrhea. Seek the advice of a physician or registered dietitian to determine if you have gluten intolerance and to obtain appropriate dietary advice.
6.) What is colostrum and does Muscle Milk contain any?
Colostrum is a type of milk given off by nursing mother cows. Muscle Milk ready-to-drink products do not contain any colostrum.
7.) Does Muscle Milk contain lactose?
No, we source our proteins specifically so that Muscle Milk is lactose free.
8.) I love the taste but what’s with all the fat?
The lean fats found in Muscle Milk are calorically dense and are excellent sources of energy. Most saturated fats in Muscle Milk come from medium chain triglycerides (MCTs) and are readily burned. MCTs show little or no propensity to be stored as fat. According to AMDR (Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range), 20% to 35% of dietary calories should come from fat. Approximately 35% of the calories in Muscle Milk come from fat. Approximately 25% of the calories in Muscle Milk Light come from fat.
9.) Is Muscle Milk Kosher?
Muscle Milk and Muscle Milk Light Ready-to-Drink 14 oz is Kosher Dairy Certified in all flavors.
10) Is it safe to use Muscle Milk during pregnancy?
Yes, all the ingredients used in the making of Muscle Milk are safe and wholesome to consume during pregnancy. High quality protein from milk and soy are used in the making of Muscle Milk and one 14-oz. serving provides 25 grams of protein. This is the amount of extra protein a woman needs daily to support a healthy pregnancy. Muscle Milk is also modestly fortified with 25% of the Daily Value for a wide array of vitamins and minerals that are also needed for a healthy pregnancy. Consult with your obstetrician or a registered dietitian about specific dietary concerns during pregnancy.
11) Can I use Muscle Milk if I am breast feeding?
Yes, the ingredients used in Muscle Milk are safe and wholesome to consume for a woman who is breast feeding. Muscle Milk contains food proteins derived from milk which the body then uses to make breast milk proteins that in turn the infant uses for growth and development. A woman who is breast feeling requires more protein – 25 grams per day -- to support making approximately 4 cups of breast milk daily. A 14-oz. serving of Muscle Milk contains 25 grams of high quality protein, which contributes to the total daily need for protein. Muscle Milk is also modestly fortified with a wide array of vitamin and minerals that help support a woman’s need during breast feeding. Consult your obstetrician or a registered dietitian for specific dietary concerns while breast feeding.
12) I’m a vegetarian, is Muscle Milk okay for me?
That depends on your definition. Muscle Milk uses dairy proteins, so Lacto-ovo vegetarians or lacto vegetarians that are okay with animal ingredients like milk should be just fine. We don’t have a vegan protein product yet, but we’re working on it.
13) Muscle Milk contains sucralose as an artificial sweetener – is this a safe ingredient?
Muscle Milk uses sucralose to achieve a naturally sweet taste without the extra calories of added sugar. With over 100 scientific studies and the approval of the Food and Drug Administration, sucralose is proven safe for use as a zero-calorie sweetener in foods and beverages. Sucralose is not linked to any health problems or risks such as cancer and is considered safe for children’s health.
14) Does Muscle Milk contain Milk?
Muscle Milk is Lactose Free and does not contain any milk. Muscle Milk contains proteins that are derived from milk including Caseinate, Milk Protein Isolate and Whey Protein.
15) Does Muscle Milk contain Vitamins & Minerals?
Muscle Milk contains a blend of 20 Vitamins & Minerals
16) Is Muscle Milk OK for kids?
Muscle Milk is not intended for kids. However, it does not contain any ingredients that are dangerous for kids. Muscle Milk is high in protein. The general daily recommendation for protein consumption is 0.5 grams/pound of body weight. Therefore, if a person weighs 100 lbs he/she should consume 50g of daily protein. 1 serving of Muscle Milk or Muscle Milk Light contains 25 grams or 20 grams of protein respectively. Consult your physician, pediatrician or visit www.health.gov/DietaryGuidelines for more information on dietary guidelines.
17) Why is Muscle Milk ‘so expensive’?
Highest quality ingredients. State-of-the-art manufacturing. The 25 grams of protein found in Muscle Milk come from highly filtered Caseinate, Milk Protein Isolate and Whey. These proteins are highly filtered to remove lactose, reduce fat and reduce cholesterol. Lean fats included in Muscle Milk are Medium Chain Triglycerides, Canola oil and Sunflower oil. These Lipids deliver many of the essential fatty acids our bodies need daily. Muscle Milk is an excellent source of 20 vitamins and minerals. All this nutritional value is packed in a convenient 14 oz. re-sealable bottle.
18) How Does Muscle Milk Light Differ From Genuine Muscle Milk?
Muscle Milk Light contains 70 fewer calories and is sugar-free. Both provide the same blend of lactose-free, milk-based proteins.
George Brooks, Ph.D., Professor of Exercise Physiology.
Alpha-L-Polylactate™ is a mixture of organic (mainly) and inorganic salts of lactic acid. Thus, Polylactate is not an acid, but it is a rapidly used fuel the use of which helps to supply energy, maintain blood sugar (glucose), and neutralize naturally produced acids in the body, including lactic acid. The use of Polylactate to supply energy rapidly in exercise, to bolster blood sugar, and to neutralize (buffer) body acids during exercise is explained in the following way.
Often in nature, success in any system depends on balance. For instance, for crop growth there needs to be a balance of nutrient soil, sunlight and water with excesses, or insufficient amounts of one component producing a poor result. So it is that balance in human physiology determines success of many metabolic processes. One critically important process has to do with the balance of formation and removal (utilization) of lactic acid in muscle during vigorous activity.
Recent research indicates that when muscles use blood sugar or stored carbohydrate (glycogen), much of these carbohydrates are converted to lactic acid. Lactic acid is a very strong organic acid. In physiological systems, almost all the lactic acid formed dissociates to the extremely useful lactate component (that represents 98.9%), and a hydrogen ion, or proton that represents 1.1%. Usually in the body the production and removal of lactic acid are in balance so that despite rapid production, little accumulates. In the past scientists thought that during exercise lactate was a dead-end metabolite which was produced because of insufficient oxygen and caused fatigue. In contrast, we now know that lactic acid is produced all the time in many cells and tissues, and in muscle, even at rest when there is plenty of oxygen. Only when the production outstrips removal does the acid part of the molecule linger to cause burning, fatigue and sensations that make athletes want to quit activity.
Why the body chooses to make lactic acid rapidly, and why the body uses this metabolic intermediate as the most important blood borne carbohydrate during exercise is an extremely complex, and revolutionary concept. However, for our present purposes we need only realize that the body needs and uses lactate, but the body suffers if hydrogen ions accumulate and causes lactic acidosis. In the form of Polylactate, we then restore the balance of salt and acid by providing lactate molecules, but without the 1.1% acid component.
Muscle can use carbohydrates faster than lipids, more energy is available for a given oxygen supply, and muscles contract more forcefully if carbohydrates are used as fuels. Moreover, by releasing lactate during exercise, some muscle can fuel other muscles, including the heart which consume and utilize lactate and protons from the blood. Additionally, in the process of producing sugar for the body during exercise, the major material taken from the blood by the liver is lactate. In fact, the liver consumes two lactates and two acid protons to make one sugar molecule.
With this new knowledge in hand, it then becomes obvious what to supply the athlete during prolonged hard exercise and recovery: give the body what it uses most rapidly, and give it something which will help remove acid protons formed during exercise. Give the body a designer molecule, the lactate without the acid proton, give the body Polylactate.
Cytomax, the Fluid-Electrolyte Energy replacement drink contains mainly the organic salt, Polylactate, but also a small amount of inorganic potassium and sodium salts of lactate. In this case lactate is used to carry and replenish the salts lost in sweat during exercise as well as to stimulate thirst insuring hydration. However, relative to energy use, inorganic salt loss during exercise is slow. Therefore, should someone try to replace energy during exercise by using an inorganic salt, such as sodium, potassium, or calcium lactate, rapidly the lactate would be removed leaving a large salt load with dehydration being the result. Instead, with the completely organic Polylactate in which amino acids are used to carry the lactate molecules, the body is provided substances all of which are useful during exercise and recovery.
Milk is an extremely complex food that delivers a broad spectrum of immune and nutrition factors to help babies survive and grow. Milk is far more complex than once thought, with over 100,000 different molecular substances estimated. Science continues to gain fresh insights into milk structures. One area in particular has received recent attention-casein micelles.
The term "casein micelles" may seem confusing. But once you learn why casein micelles are in human milk, and their role in nutrition, they are easy to understand. Casein micelles are another example of the brilliant strategies Nature uses to solve difficult nutritional problems. Whether you are an endurance athlete or bodybuilder, the casein micelles in Muscle Milk® can positively impact your metabolism and help you get the most out of your total milk protein supplement.
In human milk, there are two main proteins: whey and casein (kay-seen). Over millions of years, Nature evolved both proteins to be taken together; each complementing and boosting the effectiveness of the other. Whey is quickly metabolized, while casein is more timed delayed. This fast-and-slow protein release was cleverly designed by Nature, and is just one reason Muscle Milk® is maximally anabolic and anti-catabolic, providing a high level of amino acid concentrations in the serum amino acid pool.
Casein composes about 40% of the protein in human milk. While much of this discussion may seem like detached scientific mumbo jumbo, casein is actually a familiar part of our life. The "milk mustache" after a cold glass of milk is largely casein. And one reason milk is bright white is because casein reflects light. Finally, the curds from the Little Miss Muffet nursery rhyme are casein. We have literally grown up on, and around, casein.
Caseins, of which there are four types, are found in milk within a structure called a Micelle (my-sill). Simply, a micelle is a dense clumping of various nutrients into a molecular grouping. In a micelle, you can find up to 21 amino acids that compose casein, and powerful bioactive peptides. The cement that holds micelles tighter are the minerals calcium and phosphorus, and some citrate. In fact, close to two-thirds of milk calcium is linked to the casein micelle.
So, casein is a part of a micelle. The micelle also contains minerals, amino acids, and bioactive peptides. The term "micellear casein" refers to the overall grouping of nutrients that casein is a part.
A micelle can be composed of hundreds, even thousands, of smaller sub-micelles. Why would Nature clump all these nutrients together? For the best reason of all, and why Nature designs virtually everything about the body-survival, and why we decided to include caseins in their most complete, native, non-isolated form.
The casein micelle grouping is actually a transport vehicle. In other words, micelles act as a moving van to deliver these nutrients into the stomach, still bound together in this group. The reason for grouping reveals Nature's genius.
The micelle package contains minerals that are not well broken down in the stomach, especially in infants. That's the problem. Nature's solution is to keep the casein micelle intact so stomach acids have a better chance to help make the minerals more usable. This process also allows for larger peptides to be absorbed intact for improved protein absorption.
…casein releases its proteins, peptides and amino acids slowly-because it's part of a slow releasing micelle group. And that's also why slow releasing casein micelles are the perfect anabolic partner to whey. Whey for fast amino acid release and casein for slower amino acid release and elevated serum amino acid pools.
Commercial casein does not dissolve into water especially well. Since water is the predominant intra-cellular medium, caseinates are produced-to be more soluble in water. Caseinates are produced by dissolving casein so it is more water soluble. The most typical forms are calcium, potassium and sodium. Sometimes, as in the case of Muscle Milk, caseinates are made even more water soluble by special processing. Muscle Milk uses select caseinates to make it more mixable in water or milk, while at the same time, presenting them in their native forms to assure and enhance bioavailability. Once again, Nature, not man, was the cleverest formulator.
Why is Cytomax better then those other "thirst-quencher" sports drinks?
Most commercial sport drinks are made with primarily simple sugar as an energy source. This gives you quick energy but may cause a corresponding blood sugar drop when the initial sugar spike wears off. Many commercial drinks ignore the scientific research that proves 7% carbohydrate solution is ideal for gastric emptying. A drink with too high a sugar content is processed as a food by your body and does not contribute adequately to hydration.
Commercial drinks do not include any other performance and recovery-enhancing ingredients like Cytomax®. The complex carbs in Cytomax help you sustain energy levels over your entire workout and prevent exercise-induced glycogen depletion. Cytomax's patented Alpha-L-Polylactate™ buffers lactic acid in your working muscles, preventing burning and cramping during training and reducing soreness the next day. The antioxidants in Cytomax (Tangy Orange flavored powder only) help fight free-radical production in your body head-on during your workout. The succinates in Cytomax improve the rate of oxygen delivery to your working muscles, reducing perceived exertion at all intensity levels.
During workouts, you will be able to push your body harder without depleting your reserves and becoming exhausted at the end. This is due to enhanced oxygen carrying capacity, lower blood lactate levels, and stabilized blood sugar levels.
In the hours after workouts, instead of feeling lingering fatigue, you will feel refreshed and replenished - even after highly intense workouts. Cellular balance will be restored quickly when you deliver the nutrients and performance ingredients your body needs during exercise with Cytomax.
Sometimes I get cramps when I drink during workouts. Can Cytomax help this?
Yes. Cytomax is designed to be easily absorbed by your system and quickly distributed to your working muscles. Drinks that contain too much simple sugar or have a carbohydrate content that are too high are difficult to assimilate and will linger in your stomach. You may feel bloated or succumb to muscle cramps when your fluid replacement drink does not efficiently reach your muscles.
In addition to its acid-buffering properties, alpha L-Polylactate has been found to enter your muscle tissue 2-10 times faster than simple carbs. Cytomax also contains the ideal levels of sodium, potassium and other electrolytes to ensure your cells remain in perfect fluid and electrolyte balance during and after your workout.
Why shouldn't I just drink plain water during exercise?
Water is nature's perfect fluid replacement and always will be. However, your needs during exercise include more than just water. You need to ensure an ideal balance of fluid, nutrients, and electrolytes in every cell of your body.
When you put maximum effort into a workout, you deplete your system of stored energy. You may feel great while your heart is pumping and the adrenalin is flowing during your workout, but this exercise-induced depletion extends your recovery time and may cause fatigue, mood swings, sugar cravings, episodes of strong thirst, and body temperature fluctuations in the hours after your workout. These are all signs that your body is in a breakdown state. You can still push yourself during workouts, but you need to make it easier on your body afterwards if you want to avoid fatigue and burnout.
As water has no calories and no antioxidant or lactic acid buffering properties, it is best to mix pure bottled water with Cytomax to gain the maximum benefits of fluid replacement. When you drink two 20-ounce water bottles of Cytomax at every workout for every hour that you exercise, your systems will return to perfect balance much faster. You will recover faster and have more energy in the ensuing hours because you exercised, rather than less.
by Thomas Fahey, Ed.D., Professor of Exercise Physiology, California State University at Chico
Lactic acid has a bad reputation. Many people blame it for fatigue, sore muscles, and cramps. They think of it as a waste product that should be avoided at all cost. Guess what? Scientists have discovered that lactic acid plays a critical role in generating energy during exercise. Far from being the bad boy of metabolism, lactic acid provides fuels for many tissues, helps use dietary carbohydrates, and serves as fuel for liver production of glucose and glycogen. In fact, lactic acid is nature's way of helping you survive stressful situations.
Lactic acid has a dark side. When your body makes lactic acid, it splits into lactate ion (lactate) and hydrogen ion. Hydrogen ion is the acid in lactic acid. It interferes with electrical signals in your muscles and nerves, slows energy reactions, and impairs muscle contractions. The burn you feel in intense exercise is caused by hydrogen ion buildup. So, when you fatigue, don't blame it on lactic acid. Rather, place the blame where it belongs- on hydrogen ion.
Lactate has been made guilty by association. Far from being a metabolic pariah, the body loves lactate. It is an extremely fast fuel that's preferred by the heart and muscles during exercise. Lactate is vital for ensuring that your body gets a steady supply of carbohydrates, even during exercise that lasts for many hours. Lactate is so valuable, that taking it as part of a fluid replacement drink before, during, or after exercise improves performance and speeds recovery.
Lactate is a friend to triathletes, distance runners, swimmers, and cyclists. When you learn the facts about lactic acid, you will think of it in a whole new light. Harness the power of lactic acid and you will increase your energy level and stave off fatigue.
Here are ten things you should know about lactic acid.
1. Lactic acid is formed from the breakdown of glucose.
During this process the cells make ATP (adenosine triphosphate), which provides energy for most of the chemical reactions in the body. Lactic acid formation doesn't use oxygen, so the process is often called anaerobic metabolism. Lactate-related ATP production is small but very fast. This makes it ideal for satisfying energy needs anytime exercise intensity exceeds 50% of maximum capacity.
2. Lactic acid doesn't cause muscle soreness and cramps.
Delayed onset muscle soreness, the achy sensation in your muscles the day after a tough workout, is caused by muscle damage and post-exercise tissue inflammation. Most muscle cramps are caused by muscle nervous receptors that become overexcitable with muscle fatigue.
Many athletes use massage, hot baths, and relaxation techniques to help them rid their muscles of lactic acid and thus relieve muscle soreness and cramping. While these techniques probably have other benefits, getting rid of lactic acid isn't one of them. Lactate is used rapidly for fuel during exercise and recovery and doesn't remain in the muscles like motor oil.
3. The body produces lactic acid whenever it breaks down carbohydrates for energy.
The faster you break down glucose and glycogen the greater the formation of lactic acid. At rest and submaximal exercise, the body relies mainly on fats for fuel. However, when you reach 50% of maximum capacity, the threshold intensity for most recreational exercise programs, the body "crosses over" and uses increasingly more carbohydrates to fuel exercise. The more you use carbohydrates as fuel, the more lactic acid you produce.
4. Lactic acid can be formed in muscles that are receiving enough oxygen.
As you increase the intensity of exercise, you rely more and more on fast-twitch muscle fibers. These fibers use mainly carbohydrates to fuel their contractions. As discussed, whenever you break down carbohydrates for energy, your muscles produce lactic acid. The faster you go, the more fast-twitch muscles you use. Consequently, you use more carbohydrates as fuel and produce more lactic acid. Increased blood lactic acid means only that the rate of entry of lactic acid into the blood exceeds the removal rate. Oxygen has little to do with it.
5. Many tissues, particularly skeletal muscles, continuously produce and use lactic acid.
Blood levels of lactic acid reflect the balance between lactic acid production and use. An increase in lactic acid concentration does not necessarily mean that the lactic acid production rate was increased. Lactic acid may increase because of a decreased rate of removal from blood or tissues.
Lactic acid production is proportional to the amount of carbohydrates broken down for energy in the tissues. Whenever you use carbohydrates, a significant portion is converted to lactate. This lactate is then used in the same tissues as fuel, or it is transported to other tissues via the blood stream and used for energy. Rapid use of carbohydrates for fuel, such as during intense exercise, accelerates lactic acid produciton. Temporarily, lactic acid builds up in your muscles and blood because it can't be used as fuel fast enough. However, if you slow down the pace of exercise or stop exercising, the rate of lactate used for energy soon catches up with the rate of lactate production.
Dr. George Brooks, a Professor from the Department of Integrative Biology at University of California at Berkeley, described the dynamic production and use of lactic acid in metabolism in his "Lactate Shuttle Theory." This theory describes the central role of lactic acid in carbohydrate metabolism and it's importance as a fuel for metabolism.
6. The body uses lactic acid as a biochemical "middleman" for metabolizing carbohydrates.
Carbohydrates in the diet are digested and enter the circulation from the intestines to the liver mainly in the form of glucose (blood sugar). However, instead of entering the liver as glucose and being converted directly to glycogen, most glucose from dietary carbohydrates bypass the liver, enters the general circulation and reaches your muscles and converts into lactic acid. Lactic acid then goes back into the blood and travels back to the liver where it is used as building blocks for making liver glycogen. Your body produces much of its liver glycogen indirectly from lactic acid rather than directly from blood glucose.
Scientists call the process of making liver glycogen from lactic acid the "Glucose Paradox". The theory was formulated by famous biochemist Dr. J.D. McGarry and his associates. It shows the importance of lactic acid in carbohydrate metabolism.
7. During endurance races, such as marathons and triathlons, blood lactic acid levels stabilize even though lactic acid production increases.
This occurs because your capacity to produce lactic acid is matched by your ability to use it as fuel. Early during a race, there is a tremendous increase in the rate that muscles uptake and use glucose and breakdown glycogen. The increased rate of carbohydrate metabolism steps up production of muscle lactic acid, which also causes an increase in blood lactic acid.
As your body directs blood to your working muscles, you can shuttle the lactate to other tissues and use it as fuel. This reduces lactic acid levels in your muscles and blood, even though you continue to produce great quantities of lactic acid. However, you often feel better during the race or training. This relief is sometimes called "second wind".
Scientists use radioactive tracers to follow the use pattern of fuels in your blood and muscles. Their studies show that during exercise, lactic acid production and removal continue at 300-500 percent of resting rates, even though oxygen consumption has stabilized at submaximal levels.
8. The heart, slow-twitch muscle fibers, and breathing muscles prefer lactate as a fuel during exercise.
In the heart, for example, the uptake of lactate increases many fold as the intensity of exercise increases while uptake of glucose remains unchanged. These tissues suck up lactate at a fast rate to satisfy their energy needs.
9. Lactic acid is a very fast fuel that can be used to athletes' advantage during exercise.
The concentration of both glucose and lactic acid rise in the blood after a carbohydrate-rich meal, but the blood lactic acid concentration does not rise much because it is removed so rapidly. The body converts glucose, a substance removed from the blood only sluggishly, to lactate, a substance removed and used rapidly. Using lactic acid as a carbohydrate "middleman" helps you get rid of carbohydrates from your diet, without increasing insulin or stimulating fat synthesis. During exercise, you won't want an increase in insulin because it decreases the availability of carbohydrates that are vital to high performance metabolism.
Why is lactic acid so important in metabolic regulation? The exact answer is unknown, but there do appear to be several physiological reasons. Lactic acid- in contrast to glucose and other fuels- is smaller and better exchanged between tissues. It moves across cell membranes by a rapid process called facilitated transport. Other fuels need slower carrier systems such as insulin. Also, lactate is made rapidly in large quantities in muscle and released into general circulation. Muscle cells with large glycogen reserves cannot release significant amounts of this potential energy source as glucose because muscle lacks a key enzyme required to produce free glucose that can be released to the blood.
Including lactate as part of a fluid replacement beverage provides a rapid fuel that can help provide energy during intense exercise. The rationale for including lactate in athletic drinks is simple- since the body breaks down so much of dietary carbohydrates to lactate anyway, why not start with lactate in the first place? Lactate in the drink can be used rapidly by most tissues in the body and serves as readily available building blocks for restoring liver glycogen during recovery.
10. Proper training programs can speed lactic acid removal from your muscles.
This can be achieved by combining high intensity, interval, and over-distance training. Athletes and coaches must learn to deal effectively with lactic acid. Fortunately, most training programs incorporate elements necessary to speed lactate removal. Training programs should build your capacity to remove lactic acid during competition.
Lactic acid formation and removal rates increase as you run, bike or swim faster. To improve your capacity to use lactate as a fuel during exercise, you must increase the lactic acid load very high during training. Training with a lot of lactic acid in your system stimulates your body to produce enzymes that speed the use of lactic acid as a fuel.
High intensity interval training will cause cardiovascular adaptations that increase oxygen delivery to your muscles and tissues. Consequently, you have less need to breakdown carbohydrates to lactic acid. Also, better circulation helps speed the transport of lactic acid to tissues that can remove it from the blood.
Over distance training causes muscular adaptations that speed the rate of lactate removal. Over distance training in running, swimming, or cycling increases muscle blood supply and the mitochondrial capacity. Mitochondria are structures within the cells that process fuels, consume oxygen, and produce large amounts of ATP. A larger muscle mitochondrial capacity increases the use of fatty acids as fuel, which decreases lactate formation and speeds its removal.
Nutrition is also important. Strenuous training depletes glycogen reserves in the muscle and liver. A diet high in carbohydrates is essential for all endurance athletes. Carbohydrates supply an immediate source of glucose so the athlete has a feeling of well-being and a source of quick energy. Further, glucose is used to restore muscle glycogen from exercise. When the blood glucose and muscle glycogen reserves are renewed, glucose provides a source of lactate that helps replenish liver glycogen.
Lactic acid is an important fuel for the body during rest and exercise. It is used to synthesize liver glycogen and is one of our most important energy sources. Lactate is the preferred fuel source in highly oxidative tissues, such as heart muscle and slow-twitch skeletal muscle fibers. It is used rapidly by the body and is a valuable component in athletic fluid replacement beverages.
Lactic acid also is a powerful organic acid, and its accumulation can cause distress and fatigue during exercise. Athletes need both high intensity and over-distance training to improve the capacity to use lactic acid as a fuel during exercise and recovery. High intensity training develops cardiovascular capacity that reduces lactic acid transport to tissues that can use it as fuels. Over distance training causes tissue enzymes adaptations that increase use of fatty acids for energy. This helps slow lactic acid production from carbohydrates and to enhance tissues ability to use lactic acid as fuel.
Ahlborg G., Felig P. Lactate and glucose exchange across the forearm, legs and splanchnic bed during and after prolonged leg exercise. J. Clin. Invest. 69: 45-54. 1982.
Ahlborg G., Wahren J., Felig R. Splanchnic and peripheral glucose and lactate metabolism during and after prolonged arm exercise. J. Clin. Invest. 77: 690-699, 1986.
Brooks G.A., Fahey T.D., White T. Exercise Physiology: Human Bioenergetics and Its Applications. Mt. View, CA: Mayfield Publishing Co., 1985.
Brooks, G.A. Lactate production under fully aerobic conditions. The lactate shuttle during rest and exercise. Fed. Proc. 45: 2924-2929, 1986.
Brooks, G.A. Mammalian fuel utilization during sustained exercise. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 120: 89-107, 1998.
Brooks, G.A., Mercier J. The balance of carbohydrate and lipid utilization during exercise: the crossover concept (brief review). J. Appl. Physiol. 80: 2253-2261, 1994.
Brooks, G.A. and Trimmer J.K. Glucose kinetics during high-intensity exercise and the crossover concept. J. Appl. Physiol. 80: 1073-1074, 1996.
Donovan C.M., Brooks G.A. Endurance training affects lactate clearance, not lactate production. Am. J. Physiol. 244: E83-E92, 1983.
Hultman E.A. Fuel selection muscle fiber. Proc. Nutr. Soc. 54: 107-121, 1995.
Zinker B.A., Wilson R.D., Wasserman D.H. Interaction of decreased arterial PO2 and exercise on carbohydrate metabolism in the dog. Am. J. Physiol. 269: E409-E417, 1995.
New Technology In Sports Drinks:
Lag in Energy Delivery Curtailed
Imagine new technology in a sports drink that gets energy into an athlete 300% faster and makes a 25% difference in the finishing sprint! Now, in a report (titled: “Lactate, fructose and glucose oxidation profiles in sports drinks and the effect on exercise performance”) to be released in the highly regarded, online, public access journal PloS One (http://www.plosone.org) Professor John L. Azevedo and colleagues of California State University, Chico report on new science and technology for fueling athletes.
August 8, 2008 (08/08/08) youth of the World will gather in Beijing, China to test themselves against each other and performances of past Olympic Legends. Not since the 1936 Games in Berlin will a host nation have prepared its representatives as thoroughly.
In anticipation, around the globe, sports scientists and technicians are readying athletes to optimally utilize the speed, power and endurance in every fiber and sinew. Everything is being considered as running and swimming suits are being tailored to minimize resistance, bicycles, kayaks, canoes and racing shells and implements of every sort are being fashioned and shaped for maximal advantage. As well, the care, feeding and hydration of athletes is being evaluated and planned to support all out efforts and sprints to the finish line.
In this context, and based on new findings in biochemistry and metabolism, Azevedo and colleagues show how revolutionary new sports drink technology could lead some to Olympic Gold. Dr. Azevedo and his research team evaluated two commercially available sports drinks that differed in their design and composition for their efficacy in endurance and performance in high performance road cyclists.
The drinks compared were Cytomax™, which contains glucose polymer, glucose, fructose, and the key ingredient, PolyLactate™, and an example of the typical high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS)-based sports drink. Previously, pioneering research at the University of California, Berkeley has shown that contrary to being a waste product of metabolism, the metabolite lactate is a buffer and is actually favored above all others as a fuel for muscle.
In separate, blinded trials on athletes, the two sports drinks were individually tagged with stable, but detectable non-radioactive tracers representing the ingredients in the drinks. Of all the ingredients of the two sports drinks, lactate in Cytomax was utilized 300% faster and more completely than any of the other components of either drink. Glucose in both drinks was utilized slowest and the rate of fructose utilization was intermediate in its utilization. Interestingly fructose utilization in Cytomax was faster and far more complete than fructose utilization in the HFCS-based sports drink.
Not surprised by the finding of faster and more complete use of lactate, Dr. Azevedo noted also the difference in utilization of fructose as added by manufacturers of the respective drinks. Cytomax uses crystalline fructose whereas the popular brand uses HFCS. As well, the Chico State researchers concluded that another factor might come into play in determining sports drink performance. Because each form of carbohydrate (lactate, glucose and fructose) relies on specific transport proteins in the intestine for entry into the blood stream, Azevedo et al. hypothesized that by having more forms of carbohydrate (i.e., glucose + fructose + PolyLactate) in a sports drink fuel energy delivery would be maximized in comparison to that available from HFCS that contains only glucose and fructose.
Most importantly, the Chico State research team found that the PolyLactate in Cytomax conferred more than just fuel availability. After already cycling hard for 90 minutes the athletes were able to sprint at ~90% of their maximum capacity 25% longer after drinking Cytomax than after drinking the HFCS-based sports drink. This difference represents a tremendous advantage for athletes who measure differences in hundredth of a second or fractions of a meter! This performance advantage was likely due to buffering effects that lactate has in the blood.
And finally, it is most gratifying to know that the same new technology used in Cytomax™ is available for use by recreational athletes, workers engaged in hot and strenuous tasks, and indeed everyone needing functional refreshment, including kids trying to avoid high fructose corn syrup drinks.
While water is nature's perfect fluid replacement and always will be, your needs during exercise include more than just water. You need to ensure an ideal balance of fluid, nutrients, and electrolytes in every cell of your body.
When you drink 32 ounces of Cytomax® for each hour that you exercise, you will be able to push your body harder without depleting your reserves and becoming exhausted at the end. This is due to enhanced oxygen carrying capacity, lower blood lactate levels, and stabilized blood sugar levels.
In the hours after workouts, instead of feeling lingering fatigue, you will feel refreshed and replenished - even after highly intense sessions. Cellular balance will be restored quickly when you deliver the nutrients and performance ingredients your body needs during exercise with Cytomax®.
Some "energy" drinks can be worse than water for hydration. Many commercial drinks are too high in sugar, causing digestive distress and slowing gastric emptying time. These factors can actually lead to dehydration.
Cytomax® contains numerous ingredients designed specifically to improve athletic performance and recovery, generating the following list of reasons why Cytomax® will help you perform better and recover faster.
1. Hydrates as effectively as plain water
Research shows that an energy drink mixed at a 7% carbohydrate solution has the same gastric emptying rate as plain water. Following the mixing instructions for Cytomax® powder or drinking the convenient ready-to-drink Cytomax® will hydrate you optimally with a 7% carbohydrate solution.
2. Alpha L-Polylactate™ reduces muscle fatigue
Cytomax® is known as the world's most scientifically advanced exercise and recovery drink because of its patented Alpha-L-Polylactate™ (lactate with the acid removed), a designer-engineered carbohydrate molecule that has proven conclusively in University studies to help buffer lactic acid production in exercising muscles. Alpha- L-Polylactate™ helps you Beat The Burn™ by accelerating the process of converting lactic acid back into glucose to be used as energy, preventing the painful burning sensation that occurs with high intensity exercise and protecting against muscle tissue breakdown in the hours after exercise.
3. Complex carbohydrates provide sustained energy
Cytomax® utilizes a blend of complex and simple carbs for its calorie sources. Maltodextrin, amylopectin starches and other long chain carbohydrate molecules provide sustained energy to balance simple carbohydrate energy sources. Most commercial energy drinks derive all of their calories from simple carbohydrates, resulting in blood sugar swings and digestive difficulties.
Efficient, steady delivery of caloric energy to working muscles helps prevent bonking (depletion of blood sugar that results in dramatic fatigue) and reduces gluconeogenesis during exercise (breaking down muscle tissue for energy).
4. Succinates enhance oxygen carrying capacity
The succinates in Cytomax® have been measured to improve oxygen consumption by 11% while exercising at the same intensity. When your muscles have more oxygen, you perform better and preserve tissue from damage caused by lack of oxygen during intense workouts.
5. Antioxidants prevent free radical damage
Ingesting antioxidants (contained in Cytomax's Tangy Orange flavored powder) during exercise, a time when free radical production is high, will reduce the overall stress of workouts and speed recovery.
6. Electrolytes prevent cramping and restore cellular balance
The electrolytes (sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium and others), along with the vitamins and minerals found in Cytomax® are combined in ideal amounts and ratios to prevent cramping and restore cellular balance quickly after exercise.
7, 8, 9 & 10. While you bring home another top-6 race finish, these are the places your competitors will finish when they drink water while you replace fluids and replenish energy at the same time with Cytomax®.
Our 150,000 sq ft. state-of-the-art manufacturing facility is where we produce all of our powder products and pre-blends for ready-to-drink products. It is also where we exercise complete control over our brands – from what goes into the mix to what goes into the package.
This setup provides a critical speed to market advantage over the competition. And it gives our devoted following of consumers – high school, college, pro athletes and coaches alike – peace of mind knowing the safety, efficacy, and authenticity of the CytoSport brands is a given.
CytoSport ™ products are a completely safe, effective, and legal alternative trusted by athletes worldwide who demand the highest level of performance from themselves and from the nutritional support products they use.
Mike Bottom, Former Co-Head Men's Swimming Coach at the Cal-Berkeley, who coached athletes from five different countries in the 2000 Olympic games in Sydney, stands behind CytoSport products. His athletes medaled seven times at the Sydney games. Mike's athletes have also won NCAA championships and have been tested by the NCAA drug testing board. His athletes have been training with CytoSport products since our inception.
Dr. George Brooks PhD sits on the board of advisors for CytoSport. During his graduate studies at the University of Michigan, his extensive research in the areas of "Oxygen Debt" and "Anaerobic Threshold" lead to several hypotheses and fundamental revisions in understanding of the metabolic response to exercise. The knowledge gained in these efforts led to the invention of PolyLactate and the formulation of the original Cytomax.
Dr. Brooks was recognized for his lifetime of outstanding scientific contributions related to sports medicine and exercise science at the 2007 Awards and Tributes Committee of the American College of Sports Medicine. He was awarded the Honor Award at the Annual Meeting in New Orleans, Louisiana. The ACSM Honor Award is the highest award of the College given to only one individual each year.
CytoSport is a company on the cutting edge of the science of sports nutrition. We are constantly watching out for upcoming news and events where athletic prowess will be on display, and invite you to participate as a competitor or fan. For articles and events from the source you trust, look no further.